CH Atchyutha Rao, N Bujji Babu and KVR Murthy
The lanthanide ions either in their divalent or trivalent charge state form a very important class of luminescence activators in phosphors and single crystals. Doping these lanthanide ions in different host lattices are widely utilized in many areas for example the 5d-4f emission of Ce3+ used in scintillators for γ-ray detection, cathode ray tubes and electroluminescence phosphors. The photon cascade emission from 4f2 levels of Pr3+ used for developing high quantum efficiency phosphors excited by means of a Xe discharge in the vacuum-UV. The narrow line 4f3 transition in Nd3+ is used in laser crystals. The Sm3+ emission used as an electron trap and in information storage properties like optical memory applications, X-ray imaging phosphor applications. The famous 5D0-7Fj 4f6 redline emission of Eu3+ and the blue to red 5d-4f emission of Eu2+ are used in display and lighting phosphors. The 4f8 line emission of Tb3+ is used in tricolor tube lighting. The Dy3+ emission plays an important role in the persistent luminescence phosphors. Er3+, Tm3+ used to investigate for possible photon cascade emission phosphor applications. This is brief and still incomplete summary illustrates the diversity of applications involving the luminescence of lanthanide ions.
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